Resolving strata disputes will soon become faster, more accessible and more affordable thanks to recent provincial legislation.

 Bill 44: The Civil Resolution Tribunal Act, which passed in 2012, creates an independent body, the Civil Resolution Tribunal, which will provide dispute resolution tools as an alternative to going to court. The tribunal is expected to be operational by 2014.

 This is welcome news for the Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver, which together with BC Real Estate Association (BCREA) had, for many years, voiced concerns about strata property legislation.

BCREA advocated for this change and in 2011 reiterated the industry’s position during the province’s 2011 consultation process on strata dispute resolution.

 Who can access tribunal services?

Strata corporations, strata owners and tenants will be able to access tribunal services. 
• If two individuals are in a dispute, both must need to agree to participate in the tribunal.
• If a strata owner or a tenant decides to use tribunal services, the affected strata corporation must participate.

 The tribunal will have the authority to handle strata disputes between strata property owners and strata corporations, including: 

• non-payment of monthly strata fees or fines;
• unfair actions by the strata corporation or by those owning more than half of the strata lots in a complex;
• uneven, arbitrary or non-enforcement of strata bylaws (such as smoking, noise, pets, parking, rentals);
• issues of financial responsibility for repairs and the choice of bids for services;
• irregularities in the conduct of meetings, voting, minutes or other matters;
• interpretation of the legislation, regulations or bylaws; and
• issues regarding common property.

 The tribunal will not decide matters that affect land, including: 

• ordering the sale of a strata lot;
• court orders respecting rebuilding damaged real property;
• dealing with developers and phased strata plans; or
• determining each owner’s per cent share in the strata complex (the “Schedule of Unit Entitlement”).

 These matters will continue to be heard in the BC Supreme Court, as will other matters, including: 

• the appointment of an administrator to run the strata corporation;
• orders vesting authority in a liquidator;
• applications to wind up a strata corporation;
• allegations of conflicts of interest by council members; or
• appointment of voters when there is no person to vote in respect of a strata lot.

 How will tribunal services be accessed?

The tribunal services will be available online 24/7. Assistance will also be offered by phone, mail or even in person. Disputes are expected to be resolved within 60 days, compared to 12 to 18 months for the court process.

 The tribunal will have five stages

Dispute Stages
Souce: BC Ministry of Justice

 Stage 1 - Self-Help

Information and tools will be available online 24/7 to help parties resolve disputes.

Stage 2 - Online Party-to-Party Negotiations

If Stage 1 fails, parties can go through a guided negotiation monitored by tribunal staff.

Stage 3 - Facilitated Settlement

Where an agreement is still not reached, parties can pay applicable fees and request active facilitation by the tribunal involving mediation or other dispute resolution processes. All parties must consent.

Stage 4 - Case Management Preparation

A case manager will facilitate mediation and explore options for settlement.

Stage 5 - Adjudication

Any dispute not settled by agreement will be heard by an adjudicator with the authority to decide the outcome and make binding decisions.

Fees for tribunal resolution of a dispute have not been finalized.

 Learn more

Information on strata property and the tribunal available at:

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Investors and developers planning to do business on reserve land will find it easier thanks to new provincial legislations. Bill 43, the First Nations Commercial and Industrial Development Act (FNCIDA) Implementation Act, introduced in the BC Legislature on May 3, 2012, will create certainty for business by enabling provincial laws and regulations to apply to major commercial, industrial and residential projects on First Nations lands.

Currently, provincial laws and regulations don’t apply to reserve lands. First Nations lands are under the jurisdiction of federal government and only the federal government has the authority to make laws for “Indians, and Lands reserved for the Indians,” as set out in the Constitution Act 1867, s 91(24) and under the Indian Act. One notable exception is the Tsawwassen First Nation (TFN). Its landmark 2008 Tsawwassen treaty with the federal and provincial governments gave the TFN self-governing powers similar to those of a municipality and land I fee simple, which it can lease.

Of the province’s 198 First Nations, 116 have expressly stated they want the same rights as the TFN by participating in the BC Treaty Commission’s treaty negotiation process. However, progress has been slow, often taking years. During this time, business opportunities are being lost – and their accompanying economic and social benefits including jobs and tax revenue.

Bill 43 holds the potential to speed and simplify business activity by creating a level regulatory playing field so that developments on reserve lands are subject to the same provincial regulations that apply to off reserve developments. This will lead to certainty for business, residents and neighbouring local governments. The impetus for the new legislation came from request from two First Nations involved in two projects.
•The Haisla Nation which has a proposed liquefied natural gas facility for its lands near Kitimat; and
•The Squamish Nation which has a proposed commercial and 600 unit, four tower residential development for its lands in West Vancouver

Bill 43 will operate at the request of First Nation and will also be project-specific. For example, a First Nation planning a mixed-use development alongside a stream can ask the federal and the provincial governments to produce project-specific regulations, which the province will have the authority to monitor and enforce.

Regulations could span everything from the building code to environmental issues to a land title system and a title assurance fund compatible with the BC land title system.

Bill 43 will work with two pieces of federal legislation:
The First Nations Commercial and Industrial Development Act (FNCIDA) (2006), which facilitates commercial and industrial development on First Nations lands by allowing provincial regulations to be replicated and to apply on reserves; and
The First Nations Certainty of Land Title Act (2010), which gives the federal government the authority to make regulations respecting commercial land title at the request of a First Nation where the First Nation has the support of a private sector partner and the provincial government.

Currently First Nations land interests are registered under the federal Indian Lands Registry System which contains three separate deeds-based systems:
•The Indian Land Registry System (ILRS), which includes documents related to and interest in reserve (and any surrendered) land administered under the Indian Act;
•The First Nations Land Registry System (FNLRS), which includes land records of First Nations operating under their own Land Code as set out in the First Nations Land Management Act (FNLMA); and
•The Self-Governing First Nations Land Register (SGFNLR), which includes First Nations self-government agreements and documents which grant an interest in self-governed First Nation lands.

None of these systems is as secure as the Torrens-based land registration system used in BC.
Bill 43 will work with the First Nations Certainty of Land Title Act (2010), to enable the provincial government to create, at the request of a Fist Nation, a land title system administered by the provincial Land Title and Survey Authority (LTSA) on behalf of the federal government.

The Squamish First Nation has made this request. A new land title system will be created for residents of the proposed Squamish project, who will be able to register leases with the provincial LTSA on behalf of the federal government.
The Squamish First Nation will also negotiate a range of service agreements, for example transportation, schools, water and sewer.  


Article from RealtorLink, May 18 2012, Volume 13, Number 10

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